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100 Years: IADR Timeline

CELEBRATING A CENTURY OF DISCOVERY

Travel through 100 years of innovation, progress and pioneering research.

1910s
NINETEEN-TENS

The launch of the Journal of Dental Research lays the foundation for the recording of monumental findings in the field of oral health.

1919
1919

THE FOUNDATION OF THE JOURNAL OF DENTAL RESEARCH

The Journal of Dental Research was founded by William Gies in 1919, a year before he founded the IADR. Surprisingly, for several years the Journal and the Association functioned as very distinct entities. The Journal did not print any information about Association activities until 1926, although in 1921 there was an incidental footnote in the JDR that alluded to the existence of the Association.

1920s
NINETEEN-TWENTIES

It’s a series of firsts for the newly formed International Association for Dental Research — from new chapters and leaders to the inaugural general meeting — as well as for standards in the overall field of dental science.

1920
1920

THE FOUNDATION OF THE IADR

The IADR was founded in 1920 by William Gies, who believed that "such an association could be best formed as a federation of local societies, each to be in effect an autonomous section of a national division of the international organization." He contacted 100 of the leading dentists in New York City to begin forming the first chapter in what was then the largest city in the United States. The first dinner meeting took place on December 10, 1920, at the Columbia University Club, with the intent to "consider the advisability of promoting research by an international organization." At that meeting, a Chairman and Secretary were selected and the initial Articles of Agreement were adopted.



 

1922
1922

FIRST ANNUAL MEETING OF THE IADR

The first annual meeting of the IADR was held on December 21, 1922, at the Plaza Hotel in New York City. Although there were only four local sections in existence at this point the meeting It was well attended, but a bit meager in its scientific content — only two papers were presented, in contrast to the thousands that are presented at more recent General Sessions.
 

1928

ADA FORMS RESEARCH PARTNERSHIP WITH NBS TO DEVELOP STANDARDS FOR DENTAL MATERIALS

In 1929, the American Dental Association (ADA) established a cooperative research program with the National Bureau of Standards in order to develop standards, specifications and test methods for dental materials used by the U.S. War Department. Originally called the ADA Research Commission, the name was later changed to the Paffenbarger Research Center, and then recently renamed the ADA Foundation Volpe Research Center (VRC). Groundbreaking inventions that have emerged from this partnership include the panoramic X-ray machine, the high-speed handpiece, resin composite filling materials and dental bonding systems. The National Bureau of Standards is now known as the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Today, NIST and the VRC continue the tradition of performing groundbreaking dental materials research and transferring scientific advances from the bench to the clinic.
 

1930s
NINETEEN-THIRTIES

Researchers focus their attention on the role water and nutrition play in oral health, while toothbrush bristles get a makeover and IADR goes international.

1930
1930-1

RESEARCH ON THE AETIOLOGY OF MOTTLED ENAMEL GAINS MOMENTUM

Frederick McKay publishes an overview of investigations to date, as the role of the water source has been inferred.

1930
1930-2

SOUDER CALLS FOR MORE DATA ON DENTAL MATERIALS

In a publication titled "Problems in Dental Research," Wilmer Souder seeks more research to establish the effectiveness of dental materials, calling for “data on the physical properties of materials and an attempt to show the application of these data to dental operations.”

1930
1930-3

THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF HEALTH IS ESTABLISHED

During World War I, the Public Health Service (PHS) and the staff of its Hygienic Laboratory attended primarily to sanitation of areas around military bases in the United States. In 1930, the Ransdell Act changed the name of the Hygienic Laboratory to National Institute of Health (NIH) and authorized the establishment of fellowships for research into basic biological and medical problems.

1930
1930-4

EIGHTH ANNUAL MEETING OF THE IADR – FIRST OUTSIDE THE U.S.

The 8th Annual Meeting was held in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. It was noteworthy for being the first meeting outside the United States, which underscored the intention for the Association to be internationally focused. There were several attendees from overseas, some beginning to organize small sections such as the one from Vienna, Austria.

1931
1931

EPIDEMIOLOGICAL EVIDENCE FOR THE ROLE OF SUGAR STARTS TO INCREASE

E.V. McCollum and his associates made contributions in many areas of experimental nutrition. In 1922 they were the first to describe the gross appearance of dental caries in rats fed faulty diets. In 1931 Klein and McCollum showed that diets relatively high in phosphate are probably protective against dental caries. McCollum, however, always cautioned that the calcium-phosphorus ratio must be kept within a fairly limited range for health maintenance.
 

1933
1933

FLUORIDATION LEVELS FIRST LINKED TO MOTTLED ENAMEL

H. V. Churchill, a chemist with the Aluminum Research Laboratories, published a paper in the JDR on the association between fluoride in the water and enamel mottling, observing that, "It is of interest to note that apparently the relative severity of the defect in these various areas seems to follow the fluoride concentration."

1934
1934

THE IADR TAKES OVER OWNERSHIP OF THE JDR

The Journal of Dental Research, founded in 1919 by William Gies, functioned independently from the IADR for its first 15 years. So independently, in fact, that in 1922, one page of the JDR displayed the IADR next to last in a list of its affiliated organizations (those that used the Journal pages as an outlet for their scientific proceedings). The IADR finally voted to take ownership of the Journal in 1934, with its Editor functioning as a major office-bearer in the Association.
 

1937
1937-1

STUDY FINDS LINK BETWEEN SUGAR AND DECALCIFICATION

A groundbreaking study shows that by incubation in media containing sugar or cereals mixed with saliva, healthy teeth were induced to decalcify after two to eight weeks.

1937
1937-2

INTRODUCTION OF THE VITALLIUM DENTAL SCREW IMPLANT

Alvin and Moses Strock experiment with a chromium-cobalt alloy known as Vitallium to restore individual teeth. However, due to lack of osseointegration their efforts were largely unsuccessful.

1938
1938

SYNTHETIC NYLON TOOTHBRUSHES MAKE THEIR DEBUT

Boar bristles were typically used for toothbrushes until 1938, when nylon bristles were first introduced by DuPont de Nemours.

1939
1939-1

HA ZANDER REPORTS ON THE REACTION OF PULP TO CALCIUM HYDROXIDE

The action of Ca(OH)2 on the pulp tissue was reported and its potential in stimulating dentin bridge formation to protect the pulp was demonstrated.

1939

IADR DENTAL MATERIALS GROUP ESTABLISHED

In 1939, after much correspondence and discussion between William Gies and colleagues, the Dental Materials Group was established as an affiliate of the IADR. It was “the first of a prospective series of groups within the Association to advance research in various aspects of dentistry.”

1939
1939-3

MCKAY AND DEAN LINK FLUORIDE TO MOTTLED ENAMEL AND DECREASED CARIES

Fluoride research began with the report of “mottled enamel” by Frederick McKay, found in his patients in Colorado Springs, USA. Henry Trendley Dean, a U.S. Public Health Service public-health dentist, collaborated with McKay in identifying “mottled enamel” or fluorosis as being associated with fluoride in the drinking water. Dean also discovered that there was an association between caries in children, mottled enamel and fluoride levels in the drinking water. He advocated that 1 ppm of fluoride be tested for its effects on caries.

1939
1939-4

GIES ELECTED IADR PRESIDENT

Although William Gies founded the IADR in 1920, it was not until 19 years later that he was elected IADR president.

1940s
NINETEEN-FORTIES

In a decade of major dental advancements, fluoride makes its debut in drinking water, the precursor to dental sealants is developed and a U.S. president signs a dental research act into law.

1945
1945

COMMUNITY WATER FLUORIDATION BEGINS

On January 25, 1945, Grand Rapids, Michigan, became the first community in the United States to fluoridate its drinking water to prevent tooth decay, beginning a clinical trial that established the efficacy and safety of fluoride to prevent dental caries. This was one of the most significant public health advances of the 20th century.

1948
1948

USA PRESIDENT HARRY S. TRUMAN FORMS NIDR

Harry S. Truman, the 33rd USA President, signed the National Dental Research Act into law on June 24, 1948. The dental research section of the National Institutes of Health was named the National Institute of Dental Research (NIDR) and has since been renamed the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research. Henry Trendley Dean, a past president of the IADR, was installed as the first NIDR director.

1949
1949

ADVANCES IN BONDING RESIN AND COMPOSITE FILLINGS

In 1949 Swiss chemist Oskar Hagger developed a system of bonding acrylic resin to dentin. Michael Buonocore used this technology to develop the first white (composite) fillings and the acid-etch technique for bonding resin to tooth enamel. These crucial developments eventually led to dental sealants, a major preventive measure effective against caries in children and adolescents and the basis of minimally invasive treatment of coronal caries today.

 

1950s
NINETEEN-FIFTIES

A series of milestones are achieved in the areas of materials and equipment, improving dental processes and the patient experience.

1950

PROCTER & GAMBLE DEVELOP AND MARKET FIRST FLUORIDE TOOTHPASTE

Procter & Gamble subsidized a major research project at Indiana University, Bloomington, USA, exploring the use of stannous fluoride — a compound of fluoride and tin — in the prevention of tooth decay.

The research team produced a cavity-preventing toothpaste prototype by 1952 and proceeded to run clinical trials on 1,500 children and 400 adults in the area. After demonstrating that half of the participants showed a significant decrease in dental caries, Procter & Gamble released Crest toothpaste in 1956.

1952

NORTH AMERICAN DIVISION OF THE IADR IS FOUNDED

1952
Branemark-Osseointegration

BRÅNEMARK OBSERVES OSSEOINTEGRATION OF TITANIUM IMPLANTS

The genesis of osseointegration as a concept was introduced by Per-Ingvar Brånemark, professor at the Institute of Applied Biotechnology, University of Gothenburg. He called it “a direct structural and functional connection between ordered living bone and the surface of the load-covering implant.”

1953
iadr_britishdivision

BRITISH DIVISION OF THE IADR IS FOUNDED

1954
iadr_japanesedivision

JAPANESE DIVISION OF THE IADR IS FOUNDED

1955
Michael-Buonocore_resize

BUONOCORE EXPLORES THE ETCHING OF DENTAL ENAMEL

Known for his inquisitive nature, Michael Buonocore had a knack for exploring and evolving the dental research. While doing research at the Eastman Dental Center in Rochester, New York, USA, Buonocore experimented with adding a weak acid to the bonding process to increase the bond strength between the surface enamel and resin. The traditional acrylic resins were quickly replaced as Buonocore's discovery was better adept to handle the oral environment.
 

1957
Chips-1956-high-speed-handpieces-e1431030649825-1-400x568

HIGH-SPEED AIR-DRIVE CONTRA-ANGLE HANDPIECE INTRODUCED

John Borden introduces a high-speed air-drive contra-angle handpiece. The Airotor obtains speeds up to 300,000 rotations per minute.

1958
Clinic_1980s

DEBUT OF THE FIRST FULLY RECLINING DENTAL CHAIR

The standard dental chair we've come to know today didn't begin mass production until 1958, when John Naughton redesigned the chair with the key break in the seat. This new design element allowed for a durable, yet flexible chair that was more comfortable for the patient yet didn’t the dentist’s access.

1960s
NINETEEN-SIXTIES

The use of dental crowns becomes more widespread. Gingivitis takes center stage.

1939-4

Testing 5050

ADA CERP

The International Association for Dental, Oral, and Craniofacial Research is an ADA CERP Recognized Provider. ADA CERP is a service of the American Dental Association to assist dental professionals in identifying quality providers of continuing dental education. ADA CERP does not approve or endorse individual courses or instructors, nor does it imply acceptance of credit hours by boards of dentistry. Concerns or complaints about a CE provider may be directed to the provider or to the Commission for Continuing Education Provider Recognition at ADA.org/CERP.

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Yehuda Sugarman

Director of Government Affairs

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